This guest post on selecting a diabetes medication was contributed by pharmacist Jiamin Liau who is also a Certified Diabetes Educator in Australia. I’m appreciative for her contribution to help educate other healthcare professionals! If you’re a pharmacist and have a case or scenario you’ve seen in your practice feel free to shoot me a message.
The past medical history of Mr. AD, 45 years old includes T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and stroke.
He was initiated on metformin XR 1000 mg twice daily nine months ago. Recent pathology results show HbA 1c 7.8% and eGFR 65 ml/min. His BMI is 29. Target HbA1c set for Mr. AD is 7%. If you were to add a second therapy to his current regimen, what oral agent would you choose?
B) SGLT2 Inhibitors
C) DPP-4 Inhibitors
Sulfonylureas…is this a suitable add-on therapy for Mr. AD? Given that he has an elevated BMI and is relatively young, he may lead an active lifestyle. Sulfonylureas have a long track of record of success; they can, however, contribute to weight gain and may cause hypoglycemia. Cost considerations may also play a role in selecting this agent.
SGLT2 inhibitors inhibit a sodium-glucose cotransporter to induce urinary glucose loss and decrease blood sugar level. It has been shown to reduce HbA1c with no hypoglycemia, promote mild weight loss, CV protective effects (canagliflozin, empagliflozin) and renal protective effects (canagliflozin, empagliflozin).
On the other hand, the side effects of this medicine include dehydration and genitourinary infections. Should this be added to this existing therapy? If he is already receiving an ACE-inhibitor/ thiazide diuretic combination for his hypertension management, what are some additional counseling points to be included in his management plan?
Or should we consider a DPP-4 inhibitor for Mr. AD? DPP-4 inhibitors decrease inactivation of GLP-1 thereby increasing its availability (GLP-1 stimulates beta cell insulin release). DPP-4 inhibitors have weight neutral effect and do not cause hypoglycemia. Nonetheless, DPP-4 inhibitors can rarely cause acute pancreatitis and joint pain. Reduction in A1C may be slightly less than other agents as well.
Which diabetes medication would you add to Mr. AD existing therapy?
Here’s also a link to a helpful diabetes comparison table – https://diabetesed.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/ada-2018-meds-comparison-chart.jpg
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