Persistent Angioedema Case:

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Catapres-TTS® (clonidine) Transdermal Therapeutic System prescribing information. Ridgefield, CT; 2004 Aug.


Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Catapres® (clonidine hydrochloride) Oral Antihypertensive prescribing information. Ridgefield, CT; 2009 Oct.


Shionogi Pharma, Inc. Kapvay ® (clonidine hydrochloride) extened release tablets, oral prescribing information. Atlanta, GA 2010.


Clonidine. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: Accessed 3/11/15@2PM.


Sertaline. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: Accessed 3/12/15@2PM.


Hydrochlorothiazide. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: Accessed 3/11/15@2PM.


AHFS® Drug Information. © Copyright, 1959-2014, Selected Revisions January 1, 2009, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.


Tris Pharma. NextWave Pharmacuticals Anounces Launch of Nexiclon TM XR – First Extended-Release,

Once Daily Clonidine Oral Suspension and Tablet. 2015.


Kaufman, M. ACE-Inhibitor-Related Angioedema. P T. 2013 Mar; 38(3): 170-172


Hameed MS, Patel V, Bertino, JS. Delayed Angiotensive-Conversting Enxyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema. Hospital Physician. 2006 Feb; 33-36


Angioedema. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: Accessed 3/11/15@2:30PM.


Salih I, Thomas S. Causes and management of drug-induced angioedema. Serious ADRs. 2009; 17(7)


Zuraw B, Bingham CO. An overview of angioedema: Clinical features, diagnosis, and management . UpToDate. Updated Nov 24, 2014. Accessed 3/12/15@2PM.


Cicardi M, Zuraw B. Hereditary angioedema: Pathogenesis and diagnosis. UpToDate. Updated Oct 20, 2014. Accessed 3/12/15@2PM.


Pfizer. Zoloft® (sertraline hydrochloride) Tablets and oral concentrate prescribing information. New York, NY 2014.


Watson Pharma, Inc. Microzide (hydrocholorthiazide, USP) Capsules 12.5mg prescribing information. 2012.

Difficulty Breathing: What could be contributing?

  1. Papiris SA, Triantafillidou C, Kolilekas L, et al. Amiodarone: review of pulmonary effects and toxicity. Drug Saf 2010; 33:539.
  2. Schwaiblmair M, Berghaus T, Haeckel T, et al. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: an under-recognized and severe adverse effect? Clin Res Cardiol 2010; 99:693.
  3. Singh S. et al. Pulmonary Effect of Amiodarone in Patients with Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30: 514 –7.
  4. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. UpToDate. Available at:
  5. Accessed 03/31/2015@ 11:45 AM
  6. Amiodarone. Lexi-Drugs. Available at:
  7. Accessed 03/31/2015@ 12:06 PM

Goodpasture’s Syndrome

  1. Greco A, Rizzo MI, De Virgilio A, et al. Goodpasture’s syndrome: a clinical update. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 Mar;14(3):246-53.
  2. Hellmark T, Segelmark M. Diagnosis and classification of Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM). J Autoimmun. 2014 Feb-Mar;48-49:108-12.
  3. Quest Diagnostics. Anti-GBM antibodies. Available from: Accessed: 3/30/15@1:30PM.

Overanticoagulation Case

  1. Guyatt GH, Akl EA, Crowther M, et al. Executive Summary:Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. CHEST. 2012; 141 (2_suppl): 7S-47S.
  2. Warfarin. Lexicomp Online®, Lexi-Drugs®, Hudson, Ohio: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; April 23, 2015.
  3. Jessup DBColetti ATMuhlestein JB, et al. Elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention during uninterrupted warfarin therapy. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2003;60(2):180-4.
  4. Jamula ELloyd NSSchwalm JD, et al. Safety of uninterrupted anticoagulation in patients requiring elective coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2010;138(4):840-7.
  5. Annala APKarjalainen PPPorela P, et al. Safety of diagnostic coronary angiography during uninterrupted therapeutic warfarin treatment. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(4):386-90.
  6. Safe practice recommendations for using vitamin K1 to reverse excessive warfarin anticoagulation. Institute for Safe Medication Practices Web Site. Accessed April 23, 2015.
  7. Mattea EJ, Quinn K. Adverse reactions after intravenous phytonadione administration. Hosp Pharmacy 1981;16: 224-235.
  8. Phytonadione. AHFS Updates On-line. AHFS Drug Information Web site. support/login.aspx? ReturnUrl=%2fsupport%2findex.aspx. Accessed April 23, 2015.