Persistent Angioedema Case:

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Catapres-TTS® (clonidine) Transdermal Therapeutic System prescribing information. Ridgefield, CT; 2004 Aug.


Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Catapres® (clonidine hydrochloride) Oral Antihypertensive prescribing information. Ridgefield, CT; 2009 Oct.


Shionogi Pharma, Inc. Kapvay ® (clonidine hydrochloride) extened release tablets, oral prescribing information. Atlanta, GA 2010.


Clonidine. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Accessed 3/11/15@2PM.


Sertaline. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Accessed 3/12/15@2PM.


Hydrochlorothiazide. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Accessed 3/11/15@2PM.


AHFS® Drug Information. © Copyright, 1959-2014, Selected Revisions January 1, 2009, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.


Tris Pharma. NextWave Pharmacuticals Anounces Launch of Nexiclon TM XR – First Extended-Release,

Once Daily Clonidine Oral Suspension and Tablet. http://www.trispharma.com/news_Nexiclon06Jan2011.php 2015.


Kaufman, M. ACE-Inhibitor-Related Angioedema. P T. 2013 Mar; 38(3): 170-172


Hameed MS, Patel V, Bertino, JS. Delayed Angiotensive-Conversting Enxyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema. Hospital Physician. 2006 Feb; 33-36


Angioedema. Lexi-Drugs. Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Accessed 3/11/15@2:30PM.


Salih I, Thomas S. Causes and management of drug-induced angioedema. Serious ADRs. 2009; 17(7) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/psb.358/pdf


Zuraw B, Bingham CO. An overview of angioedema: Clinical features, diagnosis, and management . UpToDate. www.uptodate.com. Updated Nov 24, 2014. Accessed 3/12/15@2PM.


Cicardi M, Zuraw B. Hereditary angioedema: Pathogenesis and diagnosis. UpToDate. www.uptodate.com. Updated Oct 20, 2014. Accessed 3/12/15@2PM.


Pfizer. Zoloft® (sertraline hydrochloride) Tablets and oral concentrate prescribing information. New York, NY 2014.


Watson Pharma, Inc. Microzide (hydrocholorthiazide, USP) Capsules 12.5mg prescribing information. 2012.

Difficulty Breathing: What could be contributing?

  1. Papiris SA, Triantafillidou C, Kolilekas L, et al. Amiodarone: review of pulmonary effects and toxicity. Drug Saf 2010; 33:539.
  2. Schwaiblmair M, Berghaus T, Haeckel T, et al. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: an under-recognized and severe adverse effect? Clin Res Cardiol 2010; 99:693.
  3. Singh S. et al. Pulmonary Effect of Amiodarone in Patients with Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30: 514 –7.
  4. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. UpToDate. Available at:
  5. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/amiodarone-pulmonary-toxicity. Accessed 03/31/2015@ 11:45 AM
  6. Amiodarone. Lexi-Drugs. Available at:
  7. http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Accessed 03/31/2015@ 12:06 PM

Goodpasture’s Syndrome

  1. Greco A, Rizzo MI, De Virgilio A, et al. Goodpasture’s syndrome: a clinical update. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 Mar;14(3):246-53.
  2. Hellmark T, Segelmark M. Diagnosis and classification of Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM). J Autoimmun. 2014 Feb-Mar;48-49:108-12.
  3. Quest Diagnostics. Anti-GBM antibodies. Available from: http://www.questdiagnostics.com/testcenter/BUOrderInfo.action?tc=257X&labCode=QBA. Accessed: 3/30/15@1:30PM.

Overanticoagulation Case

  1. Guyatt GH, Akl EA, Crowther M, et al. Executive Summary:Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. CHEST. 2012; 141 (2_suppl): 7S-47S.
  2. Warfarin. Lexicomp Online®, Lexi-Drugs®, Hudson, Ohio: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; April 23, 2015.
  3. Jessup DBColetti ATMuhlestein JB, et al. Elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention during uninterrupted warfarin therapy. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2003;60(2):180-4.
  4. Jamula ELloyd NSSchwalm JD, et al. Safety of uninterrupted anticoagulation in patients requiring elective coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2010;138(4):840-7.
  5. Annala APKarjalainen PPPorela P, et al. Safety of diagnostic coronary angiography during uninterrupted therapeutic warfarin treatment. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(4):386-90.
  6. Safe practice recommendations for using vitamin K1 to reverse excessive warfarin anticoagulation. Institute for Safe Medication Practices Web Site. https://www.ismp.org/newsletters/acutecare/articles/19991103.asp. Accessed April 23, 2015.
  7. Mattea EJ, Quinn K. Adverse reactions after intravenous phytonadione administration. Hosp Pharmacy 1981;16: 224-235.
  8. Phytonadione. AHFS Updates On-line. AHFS Drug Information Web site. http://www.ahfsdruginformation.com/ support/login.aspx? ReturnUrl=%2fsupport%2findex.aspx. Accessed April 23, 2015.